Enforcement of Ta’zir requires two types of actions: To neglect duties when one is able to fulfill them such as repayment of debts or doing what is forbidden such as bribes.
Sinful actions that require the enforcement of a ta'zir punishment are of two types:
The first is to neglect or omit duties when one is able to fulfil them, such as the repayment of debts, delivering things held in trust to their rightful owners, safeguarding the property of orphans and delivering these when the orphans come of age. Any of these may be punished by ta'zir until the person concerned does his duty.
This is based on the hadith reported by Abu Hurayrah who quotes the Prophet (peace be upon him):
‘Delaying the repayment of a debt by a person able to repay it is an act of injustice.’
Related by al-Bukhari, hadith No. 2,400; Muslim, hadith No. 1,564
In another narration: “allows his punishment”.
The other type of actions requiring ta'zir is to do what is forbidden, such as spreading false rumours against people, backbiting, favouritism in jobs, taking bribes, lesbianism, etc. No specific punishment is made mandatory for these and similar matters.