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To bear witness that pertains to the rights of human beings is a collective duty. If anyone is needed to bear testimony in order to clarify the rights of the parties in a particular dispute, then it is the duty of that person to give testimony. Allah says: ‘Witnesses must not refuse when they are called in’ (2: 282). To Give testimony is a duty: Allah says: ‘You shall not withhold testimony, for he that withholds testimony is sinful at heart’ (2: 283).

Judging Disputes

Qadaa giving a ruling according to Islam and making it binding on people, so as to settle disputes and end quarrels The Muslim ruler must appoint judges as the needs of the community dictate, so that people’s rights are secured and injustice is removed. In the Qur’an Allah says: ‘David! We have made you a vicegerent on earth: judge, then, between people with justice, and do not follow vain desire, lest it leads you astray from the path of Allah’ (38: 26).

Permissible and prohibited hunting

It is forbidden to do any hunting in the Sacred Precincts around the Ka’bah, which is known as the Haram area. The prohibition applies to everyone, whether they are in the state of consecration or not.It is forbidden for anyone who is in the state of consecration (ihram) to hunt or to help anyone in hunting, whether by action or pointing it out or in any other way.

What is specifically forbidden to eat

There are 10 forbidden types of food mentioned in Allah’s book. Allah says: ‘Forbidden to you are carrion, blood, the flesh of swine; and that over which any name other than Allah’s has been invoked; and the animal that has been strangled, or beaten to death, or killed by a fall, or gored to death, or savaged by a beast of prey, except that which you may have slaughtered when it is still alive, and [forbidden to you are] animals that have been slaughtered on idolatrous altars’ (5: 3).


The basic rule that defines what is permissible or forbidden to eat is the Qur'anic verse that says: ‘Say: “In all that has been revealed to me, I do not find anything forbidden to eat, if one wishes to eat thereof, unless it be carrion, or blood poured forth, or the flesh of swine – for all that is unclean – or a sinful offering over which any name other than Allah’s has been invoked. But if one is driven by necessity, neither intending disobedience nor exceeding his bare need, then know that your Lord is Much-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful”’ (6: 145).

Types of Pledge

Pledges may be valid or invalid; permissible or forbidden; binding or worthless. A pledge is valid and binding if it involves something good, such as a voluntary act of worship, with the pledging person hoping to earn Allah’s pleasure.

Atonement for oaths

Allah, in His mercy, has made clear a way to go back on one’s oath and release oneself from its import. Allah says: ‘Allah has already ordained for you [believers] a way to release you from such oaths’ (66: 2).

Types of Oaths

Idle oath: This is when a person says the words of an oath without intending his statement as an oath. He may say, for example, ‘Yes, by Allah’, or ‘No, by Allah’.


An oath is made to confirm something by Allah’s name or one of His attributes. Oaths may be classified into three categories with respect to their validity and commitment.