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To bear witness that pertains to the rights of human beings is a collective duty. If anyone is needed to bear testimony in order to clarify the rights of the parties in a particular dispute, then it is the duty of that person to give testimony. Allah says: ‘Witnesses must not refuse when they are called in’ (2: 282). To Give testimony is a duty: Allah says: ‘You shall not withhold testimony, for he that withholds testimony is sinful at heart’ (2: 283).

Judging Disputes

Qadaa giving a ruling according to Islam and making it binding on people, so as to settle disputes and end quarrels The Muslim ruler must appoint judges as the needs of the community dictate, so that people’s rights are secured and injustice is removed. In the Qur’an Allah says: ‘David! We have made you a vicegerent on earth: judge, then, between people with justice, and do not follow vain desire, lest it leads you astray from the path of Allah’ (38: 26).