War gains are to be divided into 5 shares according to Quran, 1 to the ruler and the other 4 shares among the army adult sane free soldiers according to their roles, scholars rulings need to be revised to be fit nowadays.
The majority of scholars agree that war gains are divided into five shares. The first share belongs to the Muslim treasury, and it is taken by the Muslim ruler or anyone he has assigned for the purpose. This share is distributed as Allah has ordered:
‘Know that one-fifth of whatever spoils you may acquire in war is for Allah and the Messenger, and for the near of kin, the orphans, the needy and the traveller in need’
The other four shares are divided among all those who were present at the battle, provided they are free and sane adult men who were ready to fight, whether they actually took part in the fighting or not, and whether they are physically strong or weak.
‘The war gains belong to those present during the battle’
Related by 'Abd al-Razzaq in Al-Musannaf, hadith No. 9,698; al-Bayhaqi in Al-Sunan al-Kubra, vol. 9, p. 50.
The division among the beneficiaries was shown by the Prophet (peace be upon him) after the Battle of Khaybar, when he gave foot soldiers one share each and gave two shares to horses, which meant that a man fighting on his horse received three shares, because at the time mounted fighters were more effective than foot soldiers.