Borrowing is using a non-consumable item that doesn't belong to oneself and returning it intact after an agreed amount of time by the owner. Only the owner can lend his things and to be used in a lawful purpose
To borrow means to gain the benefit of something, but it remains intact. A borrowed article is taken by the borrower to benefit by it, such as borrowing a car to take a journey then return it undamaged to its owner.
Borrowing is lawful and encouraged in Islam because it is implied in God’s order:
‘And cooperate in righteousness and piety’
:Safwan ibn Umayyah reports that
‘the Prophet (peace be upon him) borrowed from him body shields before the Battle of Hunayn’
Related by Ahmad, hadith No. 15,302; Abu Dawud, hadith No. 3,563; al-Hakim, vol. 2, p. 54
Anas also reports that ‘the Prophet (peace be upon him) borrowed a horse from Abu Talhah,’ who was Anas’s stepfather.
Conditions for borrowing
1-The borrower and the person lending the article should be qualified to take such an action, and the borrowed article should be owned by the person lending it.
2-The borrowed article should be usable for lawful purposes. It is not permissible to borrow something for whatever is forbidden, such as borrowing a cup made of gold or silver to use for drinking.
3-The borrowed article should remain intact after using it. If it is consumable, such as food, it cannot be lent or borrowed, unless the lender allows the person to consume the item and replace it with that which is similar. In conclusion, there should be no material benefit for the lender stipulated on the loan as this would make it riba.
- Al-Bahuti, Kashshaf al-Qina', vol. 4, p. 67.