What is stated as permissible to eat

What is stated as permissible to eat

source :Osoul Global Center

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Any food that is clean and harmless is permissible in Islam, whether vegetarian or not. The Quran and the Sunnah states clearly what is forbidden to eat due to being harmful.

What is stated as permissible to eat

The principal rule is that every type of food that is clean and harmless is permissible. Permissible food is either vegetarian produce, such as grains, nuts and fruits, or animal meat. Animals are divided into water animals and land animals.

1-Water animals are those which live only in water, such as all varieties of fish. These are permissible to eat, except for poisonous water animals which are harmful. Also forbidden to eat are aquatic or amphibious animals that are considered dirty or foul, such as crocodiles because they have sharp teeth and they kill their prey. 

Al Qurtubi related from Ibn Al Arabi that he said:  'The meat of the amphibious predators is unlawful because it embodies two conflicting rules: one that it is lawful [sea creatures] and the other that it is unlawful [land predators]. Now the ruling of unlawfulness is given priority to that of lawfulness. So, it is unlawful to eat the meat of crocodile or alligator.

Furthermore, it is forbidden to eat frogs because the Prophet (peace be upon him)  prohibited their killing.

It is permissible for Muslims to eat water animals whether they have been caught by a Muslim or a non-Muslim, and whether there are similar land animals that are permissible to eat or not. There is no need to slaughter water animals before eating them. 

:Allah says

‘Lawful to you is all water-game, and whatever food the sea brings forth, as a provision for you and for travellers.’

(5:96)

 :Explaining this verse, Ibn Abbas said

‘Water-game refers to what is fished, and the “food” refers to what the sea washes off.’

Related by al-Daraqutni, hadith No. 4,728; Ibn Kathir, Tafsir al-Qur’a, vol. 3, p. 189

: Abu Hurayrah reports: ‘A man said

‘A man said: “O Messenger of Allah, we travel by sea and we carry with us some water. If we are to use it for ablution we will be thirsty and without water to drink. Can we do our ablution with sea water?” The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The sea water is pure, and its dead animals are lawful to eat.’

Related by Ahmad, hadith No. 8,735; Abu Dawud, hadith No. 5,116; al-Tirmidhi, hadith No. 3,956; al-Nassa’i, hadith No. 59

2- Land animals. What is stated to be lawful to eat of land animals may be summarized as follows:

  • Cattle, i.e. camels, bovine animals and sheep:

:Allah says

‘He creates cattle which give you warmth and other benefits; and from them you obtain food.’

(16:5)

‘Lawful for you are the animals of grazing livestock except for that which is recited to you [in this Qur'an]’ 

(5:1)

  • Horse meat

:Jabir ibn Abdullah said

‘On the day of the Battle of Khaybar, the Prophet (peace be upon him) prohibited eating the flesh of donkeys and permitted horse meat.’

Related by al-Bukhari, hadith No. 5,520; Muslim, hadith No. 1,941

  • The desert lizard:

:Ibn  Abbas reported

‘desert lizard  was eaten at Allah’s messenger’s home.’

Related by al-Bukhari, hadith No. 2,575; Muslim, hadith No. 1,947

:The Prophet (peace be upon him) said

‘Eat it, as it is permissible, but I do not like it.’

Related by al-Bukhari, hadith No. 7,267; Muslim, hadith No. 1,944

  • The zebra: Abu Qatadah  reported that he ‘saw a zebra and slaughtered it.

:The Prophet (peace be upon him)  asked

‘Do you have any of it left?” Abu Qatadah answered: “We have a leg of it.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) took it and ate of it.’

Related by al-Bukhari, hadith No. 2,845; Muslim, hadith No. 1,196

  • Rabbits:

:Anas reports

‘that he took a rabbit and Abu Talhah (his stepfather) slaughtered it and sent its leg to the Prophet (peace be upon him)  who accepted it.’

Related by al-Bukhari, hadith No. 2,572; Muslim, hadith No. 1,953

  • Rabbits: 

:Anas reports

‘‘I asked the Prophet (peace be upon him)  about the hyena, and he said: It is game. If it is hunted by a person when he is in the state of consecration (i.e. ihram), he should atone for it by slaughtering a horned sheep.’

Related by Ahmad, hadith No. 14,425; Abu Dawud, hadith No. 3,801; al-Tirmidhi, hadith No. 851; Ibn Majah, hadith No. 3,236; al-Nassa’i, hadith No. 2,836

  • The hyena:

    :Jabir reports

    ‘I asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) about the hyena, and he said: “It is game. If it is hunted by a person when he is in the state of consecration (i.e. ihram), he should atone for it by slaughtering a horned sheep.”’ 

    Related by Ahmad, hadith No. 14,425; Abu Dawud, hadith No. 3,801; al-Tirmidhi, hadith No. 851; Ibn Majah, hadith No. 3,236; al-Nassa’i, hadith No. 2,836

    Ibn Hajar mentions that several hadiths confirm that the hyena is lawful to eat.[1].  
  • Poultry, including ducks and geese: 

: Abu Musa reports

‘I saw God’s messenger eating poultry.’

Related by al-Bukhari, hadith No. 5,517; Muslim, hadith No. 1,649

  • Locusts:

    :Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa reports

    ‘We joined the Prophet (peace be upon him)  on six or seven military expeditions and we ate locusts with him.’

    Related by al-Bukhari, hadith No. 5,495; Muslim, hadith No. 1,952.

references

  1.  Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari, vol. 9, p. 574.


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